Central district of Aksaray was established with the law numbered 3578 enacted in 1989. As of today, the total surface area of the Central district is 4606 decares, altitude is 980 and the population is 301.661. Aksaray, a detached shire attached to the Niğde Sanjak of Karaman Principality in the Ottoman records of 1530, had a population of between 5,000 to 6,000. The first official census of the Ottoman was made only to determine the population of male; according to this census, it was determined that there were 2,322 male population in the center of Aksaray. It was recorded in the yearbook in 1868-69 that there were 1020 households. It was mentioned in the mid-19th century as an township subordinated to the Niğde sanjak. In 1933, Aksaray became a district of Niğde province again after it was repealed. Later on, Aksaray became the central district of the province with the re-establishment of the province by the law number 3578 enacted in 1989.
According to TURKSTAT data, the population of the district was 7,972 as of 2019 and the altitude is 1,100. The total surface area of the district is 410,191 decares, 229,220 decares of this area are agricultural land, 98,413 decares are meadow and pasture, 12,558 decares are non-agricultural lands. In terms of the utilization of agricultural areas, there are 11,961 decares of irrigated farming land and 284,259 decares of dry farming land. The name of the district was recorded PANLI in the Ottoman State period in the 15th century. Its name was mentioned as Panlı until 1961, and its name was changed to AĞAÇÖREN later on.
Eskil was granted district status with the law numbered 3644 and dated 09.05.1990. According to TURKSTAT data, the area of the district is 1,369 km2, its altitude is 980 and population is 26,452. Eskil, which was mostly referred to as "Eski il" in the ancient sources, was first located at the place where is known today as Gavuröreni and located near the Tuz Lake in the north of the district. With the Anatolian Seljuk Domination, the Turkish tribes were settled in Eskil and its surroundings by Sultan Kılıçarslan II and the region was Turkified. It is stated in Istanbul Prime Ministry Archive Provincial Clerk Book that Eskil functioned as a center for Esb-Keşan Townships group subordinated to the Karaman Province, in the period of Seljuks. Historical ruins can be found in Eskil, which has large settlements. There are mounds in Böğet Village, Ortakuyu, Köşk, Hüyük, Mutlu, Çulfa, Sağsak and Tosun Plateaus.
Gülağaç was granted district status by the law numbered 3644 and dated 09.05.1990. The surface area of the district is 2,860 km, its altitude is 1,170 and the 2019 year population is 19,615. The surface area of Gülağaç district is 529,170 decares, of which 303,539 decares are agricultural land. Âşıklı Höyük, one of the first settlements in history in the district, has the feature of being the first village of Central Anatolia and Cappadocia. It pioneers the technological and cognitive developments in Anatolia with its 10,000 year history. The excavations in Aşıklı Höyük near Gülağaç District Kızılkaya Village started in 1989 under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Ufuk Esin. Excavations carried out with members of Istanbul University Department of Prehistory and an international team have been continuing under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Mihriban Özbaşaran. From the finds unearthed through archaeological excavations in the past years, it was understood that the people of Aşıklı lived here for at least 20 generations. Âşıklı is the first known village in Central Anatolia, where hunters, collectors and nomads have become sedentary. Besides, one of the most important natural beauties of the district, Narlıgöl, is located on the border of Aksaray and Niğde. This lake is good for various diseases as it is very rich in calcium, sodium and bicarbonate. Narlıgöl, which fascinates its visitors with its different natural beauty in four seasons, is located in the middle of Cappadocia.
It became a district on June 15, 1989 by Law No. 3578. The surface area of the district is 322 km2, its altitude is 1,485 and the population in 2019 was 11,223. According to the researches carried out in Güzelyurt District, based on historical artifacts and underground cities in the region, it has been understood that there are signs of life since 2,500s B.C.. There are historical and natural underground cities, churches and caves from ancient times in the 7 km long Manastır Valley and 14 km long Ihlara Valley in the district center. Güzelyurt is an extension of the Cappadocia region.
The surface area of Ortaköy district is 752 km2, its altitude is 1,210 and the population in 2019 is 32,639. In 1470, when İhsak Pasha took Şereflikoçhisar and Aksaray surroundings under Ottoman domination, Ortaköy and its surroundings also came under Ottoman administration. Aksaray was a sanjak center of Karaman Province in this period. The people of Ortaköy, like the people of Aksaray, supported Sultan Beyazıd during the Cem Sultan rebellion in the period of Beyazıt II. During the War of Independence, they made all kinds of sacrifices for the liberation of the homeland.
The surface area of Sarıyahşi district is 224 km2, its altitude is 1,092 m and the 2019 population of the District is 5,658. Sarıyahşi became a town in 1957. While it was a part of Şereflikoçhisar district of Ankara province, it became a district by the law numbered 3587 and dated 15.06.1989 and it was also a part of Aksaray, which became a province with the same law. It is not known exactly where and how it got the name Sarıyahşi. However, from the information and documents obtained from the researches it is understood that it took its name from Yahşi Han, which took place in the book of İbrahim Hakkı Konyalı, titled "History of Sereflikoçhisar with its Monuments and Epigraphs" . Yahşi Han, a Turkish soldier, dies while he is injured passing through Sarıyahşi with soldiers. The place known as Sarı until that time, merges with Yahşi and takes the name of Sarıyahşi. Yahşi means "beautiful" in the dictionary.
Sultanhanı gained district status with the Decree Law No. 694 dated 25 August 2017. The surface area of the district is 463 km, its altitude is 945 meters and the 2019 population is 11,147. In this district, centuries-old historical carpets from all over the world are restored in accordance with their authentic form. Sultanhanı entered the carpet industry in 1970s with hand-knotted carpet production and carpet restoration. Sultanhanı, which became known in a short time in carpet production and restoration, has expanded abroad since the 1990s. Consequently, the district became famous abroad with its carpet in a short time, but was negatively affected by the entry of Far East countries into the carpet industry. Hereupon, enterprises have drawn a new path for themselves and shifted to carpet restoration. Thousands of young people are trained as art masters in the training they start from apprenticeship in the ateliers. For this reason, Sultanhanı has an important place in carpet restoration in international markets. Worn carpets from many countries, especially Germany, England and the USA, are brought to the town for repair, and also many historical carpets belonging to the British royal family were restored in Sultanhanı. Moreover, over 100 historical carpets of Dolmabahçe Palace were repaired in Sultanhanı. In brief, important collections of antique carpets of the world are repaired in Sultanhanı.